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Issue 05 (2023)

A Specialty Ion Exchange Resin for Deoxygenation Treatment of
Boiler Makeup Water

Zhendong Liu, Amy Peddie, and Juan Carlos Pinilla

Oxygen level control can be very important in the cycle chemistry of power plants. Sometimes a higher oxygen level is desired for all-ferrous materials due to its creation of the more corrosion-resistant ferric oxide hydrate layer in the natural magnetite. This is practiced as either all-volatile treatment under oxidizing conditions (AVT(O)), or oxygenated treatment (OT). However, for some alloy materials (e.g., copper alloys and nickel alloys) used in the steam generation/recirculation systems, a reducing environment and very low oxygen levels are favored to avoid corrosion. This paper reports on a specialty ion exchange resin and its use in treating the makeup water for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. The resin is coated with a precious metal as catalyst for the oxygen-hydrogen reaction to generate water. It requires minimum maintenance (only annual backwashes), and has fast reaction kinetics, a small footprint, and a long operating life (> 20 years). The case study shows the resin can achieve < 10 μg ⋅ L–1 oxygen consistently from a makeup water with 1–10 mg ⋅ L–1 oxygen at a 189–1 514 L ⋅ min–1 flow rate. The catalyst doping, reaction mechanism, and some operational details are discussed.

PPCHEM® 2023, 25(5), 240–244

For Members only

Press Release – IAPWS Annual Meeting 2023

Between September 3rd – 8th, 2023, 62 scientists, engineers and guests representing 20 countries converged in Turin, Italy at the Star Hotel Majestic for the annual meetings of the IAPWS Executive Committee and Working Groups. This continues a series of meetings that began in 1929 in London, UK with the purpose to connect scientists and researchers with the industry operators, engineers and managers who use their work. Collaboration and engagement across these varied groups provides guidance to the researchers on topical problems within industry and provides the engineers with the latest research results for direct application in their facilities.

The main meetings included discussions around power cycle chemistry, high temperature aqueous technologies applicable to steam cycles and hydrogen generation, oceanography and global climate modelling, geothermal steam, electrode boilers, power cycles with CO2 capture and storage systems and combined heat and power systems.

PPCHEM® 2023, 25(5), 250–251

The Role of Organics in Relation to Corrosion in Steam-Water Systems

Yu Xue, Karlien Dejaeger, Ben Bischoff Tulleken, Duygu Disci, Peter Janssen, Andrea M.Brunner, David Moed, Wolfgang Hater, Emile R. Cornelissen, and Marjolein Vanoppen

A sampling campaign was conducted in a film-forming amine product (FFAP) treated highpressure steam-water system of an ammonia producing plant to optimize the cycle chemistry. Cycle chemistry guidelines were assessed to be applicable with modifications fitting the local situation according to the pH and conductivity. Methanol, a main organic compound originating from the production process, entered the steam-water system with the process condensate and was tested possible to degrade. Furthermore, organic compounds from cation exchange resin were found in blowdown streams, suspected to originate from resin carryover. No operational and corrosion issues were observed.

Lab-scale first condensate experiments confirmed that a lower pH was present in the first condensate compared with the bulk steam, however, it was still partially buffered by ammonia. Via corrosion tests it was observed that oleyl propylenediamine (OLDA), in addition to ammonia, formed a smoother and more uniform magnetite layer. Moreover, magnetite layers formed under OLDA added to ammonia were more resistant against acidic conditions (pertinent to condensate return systems) than layers formed under the ammonia only chemistry and blank chemistry (without a chemical additive), with less reduction of the magnetite layer thickness.

These studies in combination with the plant experiences confirm that the steam-water system can be safely run with the selected FFAP treatment concept even with organics from the production process.

PPCHEM® 2023, 25(5), 256–275

For Members only
Posted on

Issue 04 (2023)

Cooling Tower Operating and Water Treatment Fundamentals – Part 1

Brad Buecker and Rich Aull

Process cooling is an important operational factor in many industrial plants and commercial office buildings around the world. Most of these plants use cooling towers for primary cooling. A large facility may have dozens of towers scattered throughout the premises. Often, plant personnel are focused on process engineering and chemistry, potentially neglecting cooling systems until a serious disruption occurs that threatens plant production or, worse, jeopardizes employee safety.

This article forms the basis of a short series of articles dealing with the chemistry of cooling systems. In this first part of the series, we examine the fundamentals of heat transfer in the cooling tower and the methods that have been developed to improve heat exchange in the tower. Subsequent parts discuss modern water treatment methods to ensure reliable performance.

PPCHEM® 2023, 25(4), 190–198

For Members only

Cooling Tower Disinfection Switch to Chlorine Dioxide Reduces Boiler Chloride Cycling: Why and How? – Part 2

Emmanuel K. Quagraine, Trever McNabb, Taneal Weiss, Gillian Bailey, Nikki Wirtz, Khrystyna Vasylkiv, and Daniel Schorr

This is the second half of a two-part article discussing the abatement of selective boiler chloride cycling (SBCC) upon switching the recirculating cooling water (RCW) biocide from NaOCl to ClO2. The use of ClO2 treatment significantly reduces SBCC, with only sporadic spikes observed to a much lower extent. These spikes are found to be related to the plant’s operation, coinciding with sudden load drops and increased air injector flows. It is suggested that these spikes may be caused by small ClO2(g) residuals condensing at the air injector condenser and entering the feedwater, eventually reducing to chloride ions (Cl–) in the water/steam cycle. Unlike chlorination, ClO2 treatment prevents the formation and persistence of volatile chlorine compounds (VCCs), including ClO2(g). The residual ClO2 in the RCW that is responsible for the highest observed daily boiler chloride rise during ClO2 treatment is estimated to be 4.05–9.74 ⋅ 10–5 mg ⋅ L–1. However, this concentration range represents only 0.02–0.23 % of the highest to the least measured residual concentrations, confirming the previous assertions that maintenance of substantial residual ClO2 in RCW, especially when using treated municipal wastewater as make-up, is unlikely. Overall, the operational data supports the switch from NaOCl to ClO2 as an effective method for reducing SBCC in the water/steam cycle, with ClO2 treatment showing superior performance and minimal VCC formation compared to NaOCl.

PPCHEM® 2023, 25(4), 202–210

For Members only

Chemistry Requirements of the Steam Turbine

Frank Udo Leidich

Safe and trouble-free operation of a steam turbine requires monitoring and control of the operating medium “steam.” In particular, it is necessary to prevent impurities in steam from causing corrosion attacks on turbine components, which, depending on the form of corrosion, can lead to sudden, unpredictable component failure. This PPCHEM 101 describes typical damage and failures that will eventually occur if the quality of the water and steam does not meet the requirements as stated in the operation manual of the steam turbine manufacturer and/or global standards and technical guidance documents as released by, for example, the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS).

PPCHEM® 2023, 25(4), 220–226

For Members only


Nobody is perfect and everybody makes mistakes sometimes. We apologize to the authors and to our readers for the mistakes in the article:

Effect of Zinc Water Chemistry on the Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Structural Materials in Light Water Reactors – A Review

Xianglong Guo, Kai Chen, Hans-Peter Seifert, and Stefan Ritter

PPCHEM® 2023, 25(3), 124–147

The corrected version of the paper (a PDF file)
is available to all readers here.
The details of the errata can be found in the pdf: